Chen was able to derive the physics and found that there is a class of plasma toroids that remain stable with or without an external magnetic containment, a new plasma configuration unlike anything reported elsewhere. Seward published images of the results of his experiments, along with his method.
Included is a report by a farmer of observing a ball lightning event forming in a kitchen and the effects it caused as it moved around the kitchen. This is the only eye witness account of ball lightning forming, then staying in one area, then ending that the author has heard of. Manykin et al. This condensed excited state of matter is supported by experiments, mainly of a group led by Holmlid.
Lumps of atmospheric Rydberg matter can result from condensation of highly excited atoms that form by atmospheric electrical phenomena, mainly due to linear lightning. Stimulated decay of Rydberg matter clouds can, however, take the form of an avalanche, and so appear as an explosion.
Nikola Tesla December theorized that the balls were formed inside a gas that was highly rarefied. On the formation "A single powerful streamer, breaking out from a well insulated terminal, may easily convey a current of several hundred amperes! No wonder then, that a small mass of air is exploded with an effect similar to that of a bombshell This space, containing gas highly rarefied, may be just in the act of contracting, at any rate, the intense current, passing through the rarefied gas suddenly raises the same to an extremely high temperature, all the higher as the mass of the gas is very small.
But although the gas may have been brought to vivid incandescence, yet its pressure may not be very great. If, upon the sudden passage of the discharge, the pressure of the heated air exceeds that of the air around, the luminous ball or space will expand, but most generally it may not do so. For assume, for instance, that the air in the vacuous space was at one hundredth say, of its normal pressure, which might well be the case, then, since the pressure in the space would be as the absolute temperature of the gas within, it would require a temperature which seems scarcely realizable, to raise the pressure of the rarefied gas to the normal air pressure.
These discharges find the gas already expanded and in a condition to take up much more energy by reason of the properties it acquires through rarefaction. Evidently, the energy consumption in any given part of the path of the streamer or spark discharge is, under otherwise the same conditions, proportionate to the resistance of that part of the path; and since, after the gas has once broken down, the resistance of other parts of the path of the discharge is much smaller than that including the vacuous space, a comparatively very great energy consumption must necessarily take place in this portion of the current path.
On the duration "Here, then, is a mass of gas heated to high incandescence suddenly but not, as before, in a condition to give up heat rapidly. It can not cool down rapidly by expansion, as when the vacuous space was being formed, nor can it give off much heat by convection. To some extent even radiation is diminished. On the contrary, despite the high temperature, it is compelled to confinement in a limited space which is continuously shrinking instead of expanding.
All these causes cooperate in maintaining, for a comparatively long period of time, the gas confined in this space at an elevated temperature, in a state of high incandescence, in the case under consideration. Thus it is that the phenomenon of the ball is produced and the same made to persist for a perceptible fraction or interval of time. On the movement "As might be expected, the incandescent mass of gas in a medium violently agitated, could not possibly remain in the same place but will be, as a rule, carried, in some direction or other, by the currents of the air.
Upon little reflection, however, we are led to the conclusion that the ball or incandescent mass, of whatever shape it be, will always move from the place where an explosion occurred first, to some place where such an explosion occurred later. In fact, all observers concur in the opinion that such a fireball moves slowly. On the explosion "If we interpret the nature of this wonderful phenomenon in this manner, we shall find it quite natural that when such a ball encounters in its course an object, as a piece of organic matter for instance, it will raise the same to a high temperature, thus liberating suddenly a great quantity of gas by evaporating or volatilizing the substance with the result of being itself dissipated or exploded.
Obviously, also, it may be expected that the conducting mass of the ball originated as described, and moving through a highly insulating medium, will be likely to be highly electrified, which accords with many of the observations made.
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Ball Lightning film and Ball Lightning novel. Main articles: Soliton and St. This section contains too many or overly lengthy quotations for an encyclopedic entry. Please help improve the article by presenting facts as a neutrally-worded summary with appropriate citations. Consider transferring direct quotations to Wikiquote.
December B[rooking] R[owe], ed. Exeter: James G Commin. Retrieved 29 June The General Repository and Review. Retrieved 25 June Live Science. Retrieved 20 January A; Zelener, B. B; Zelener, B. V Retrieved 21 January Physical Review Letters. Bibcode : PhRvL.
Ten strange lights that appear in the sky
New Scientist. Bibcode : NewSc. Retrieved 22 January Scientific American. Retrieved 4 April Ohtsuki ed.
The Ball Of Light Tool from Denis Smith
Science of Ball Lightning : 88— Weekly Journal or British Gazetteer. London Journal. Benjamin Franklin, A Biography. Random House.
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The Times. Retrieved 16 April Thunder and lightning full text. Translated by Phipson, T. The Leeds Mercury. Leeds, UK.
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Archived from the original on 17 June Retrieved 13 July However, part of the lake is known as Pasquaney Bay. Bibcode : Natur. For Your Information. Galaxy Science Fiction. Lighthouses of Western Australia. Lighthouses of Australia Inc. On the Banks of Plum Creek. Harper Trophy. Elmo's fire". USA Today. Uppsala University. Retrieved 19 November Bibcode : arXiv Vladimir L. Archived from the original on 22 December New York and London: Plenum Press. Bibcode : PhyOJ Nikola Tesla — Colorado Springs Notes — Nolit Beograd, Yugoslavia , — Retrieved 10 May Archived from the original on 4 June Retrieved 4 June Ofuruton Plasma and Fusion Research.
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Bastian Books. Bibcode : PhRvL.. A more down-to-earth theory, proposed by John Abrahamson and James Dinniss at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand, is that ball lightning forms when lightning strikes soil, turning any silica in the soil into pure silicon vapour. As the vapour cools, the silicon condenses into a floating aerosol bound into a ball by charges that gather on its surface, and it glows with the heat of silicon recombining with oxygen.
National Geographic News. Retrieved 17 January Ars Technica. Geophysical Research Letters.
Ball lightning exists but what on Earth is it?
Bibcode : GeoRL.. Annales Geophysicae. Bibcode : AnGeo.. In Donald J. Ritchie ed. Consultants Bureau, New York. Bibcode : JGR Inspire HEP. Retrieved 6 March Gerard, F. Electron gas oscillations in plasma. Theory and applications. Advances in Plasma Physics Research. Bibcode : physics Archived from the original on 8 December Retrieved 20 December Physica Scripta. Bibcode : PhyS Journal of Plasma Physics. Bibcode : JPlPh.. Physics Letters A.